Every dairy farmer recognises the symptoms in calves: coughing, fever, shortness of breath, listlessness, reduced appetite, dirty noses, rough coat and wet, red eyes. All are indicators of airway problems. According to figures from the Health Service, airway problems cost the average dairy farm between 45 and 55 euros per calf per year. The costs relate to morbidity, high medicine costs, reduced growth levels and lower milk production later in life. Moreover, calves with airway infections mean a great deal more work for the dairy farmer. Major causes of airway infections include bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), pasteurella, BVD, lung worm and salmonella.